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Race To Space
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Newton's Principia Mathematica was published by the Royal Society in England.
ref: en.wikipedia.org

Born, Andrew Ellicott Douglass, astronomer, archaeologist, dendrochronologer (study of tree rings)
ref: en.wikipedia.org

A. Deutsch discovered asteroid #1148 Rarahu.

C. Jackson discovered asteroids #1428 Mombasa and #1430 Somalia.

The MX-324, the first US military rocket-powered plane, built by Northrop, was first flown by test pilot Harry Crosby, at Harper Dry Lake, California.
ref: en.wikipedia.org

E. L. Johnson discovered asteroid #1618 Dawn.

Born, Terence Thomas "Tom" Henricks (at Bryan, Ohio, USA), Colonel USAF, NASA astronaut (STS 44, STS 55, STS 70, STS 78)
Astronaut Tom Henricks, NASA photo henricks.jpg
Astronaut Tom Henricks, NASA photo
ref: www.jsc.nasa.gov

1966 14:53:00 GMT
NASA launched Apollo AS-203 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, the first orbital test of the Saturn 1B.

AS-203 lifted off from Launch Complex 37, on the Eastern Test Range, at 10:53 am EDT on 5 July 1966, the second of three Apollo-Saturn missions scheduled before a manned flight in the Apollo program. It was the first orbital test of the Saturn 1B, and did not carry a spacecraft. All objectives (primarily to acquire flight data on the S-IVB stage and instrument unit) were achieved.

The uprated Saturn I, consisting of an S-IB stage, an S-IVB stage, and an instrument unit, boosted an unmanned dummy payload into an original orbit of 185 by 189 kilometers. The inboard engine cutoff of the first stage occurred after 2 minutes 18 seconds of flight, the outboard engine cutoff was 4 seconds later. The S-IVB engine burned 4 minutes 50 seconds. No recovery was planned; the payload was expected to enter the Earth's atmosphere after about four days.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1968 06:59:00 GMT
USSR launched the astronomy satellite Cosmos 230 from Kapustin Yar for investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1968 15:22:00 GMT
USSR launched Molniya 1-09 from Baikonur for operation of the long range telephone and telegraph radio communication system, and transmission of USSR Central Television programs to the stations of the Orbita network.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1979 23:19:00 GMT
USSR launched the Gorizont 2 communications satellite from Baikonur, which was positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1979-1981; 90 deg E in 1981-1983.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1984 03:36:00 GMT
USSR launched the Meteor 2-11 weather satellite from Plesetsk to gather meteorological information and data on penetrating radiation fluxes in circumterrestrial space, which also tested some equipment for the Meteor-3 spacecraft.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1988 09:55:00 GMT
USSR launched the Okean 1 radarsat from Plesetsk to gather of up-to-date oceanographic information and data on ice conditions in the interests of the Soviet economy and international cooperation.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

JPL confirmed the discovery of 1989N1, the first moon of Neptune discovered by Voyager 2.
ref: www.jpl.nasa.gov

1989 22:45:00 GMT
USSR launched the Gorizont 18 communications satellite from Baikonur, which was positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1989-1996.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1995 03:09:00 GMT
Russia launched the Cosmos 2315 Tsikada civilian navigation satellite from Plesetsk, which was positioned in plane 11 of the constellation, transmitting signals at 150.00 MHz and 400.00 MHz.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

Born, Dolly the sheep, the world's first cloned mammal

The sheep named Dolly (5 July 1996 - 14 February 2003) was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell, whose birth was announced 22 February 1997. She was created at the Roslin Institute in Scotland and lived there until her death nearly seven years later. The name "Dolly" came from a suggestion by the stockmen who helped in the process, in honour of Dolly Parton, because the cloned cell was a mammary cell.

Dolly was cloned from a cell taken from a 6 year old ewe, using the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus from one of the donor's non-reproductive cells is placed into a de-nucleated embryonic cell, which is then coaxed into developing into a fetus.
ref: en.wikipedia.org

1997 04:11:54 GMT
Russia launched the Progress M-35 resupply vessel from Baikonur to the Mir space station.

Progress M-35, launched 5 July 1997, was an unmanned resupply vessel sent to the Mir space station. It docked with Mir on 7 Jul 1997 05:59:24 GMT, undocked on 6 Aug 1997 11:46:45 GMT, redocked with Mir on 18 Aug 1997 12:52:48 GMT, with its final undocking on 7 Oct 1997 12:03:49 GMT. It was destroyed in reentry on 7 Oct 1997 17:23:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.30 days. Total docked time 80.21 days.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1999 13:32:00 GMT
Russia launched a Proton-K/Briz-M from Baikonur carrying the Russian Defense Ministry Raduga communications satellite, which suffered a second stage explosion; the remainder of the vehicle survived another 45 seconds before breaking up.
ref: en.wikipedia.org

1999 18:00:00 GMT
As a result of the Proton-K/Briz-M/Raduga accident, the Kazakh government suspended launches from Baikonur pending a Russian agreement to pay part of the back rent then owed on the launch facility. (estimated time)
ref: www.astronautix.com

2002 23:22:00 GMT
An Ariane 5 launched from Kourou carried the French Stellat 5 Internet access and video transmission satellite, and Japan's N-Star c mobile telephone communications satellite to space, both of which were positioned in geostationary orbit.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

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