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Race To Space
Someone will win the prize...
               ... but at what cost?
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1667
Born, Johann Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (Gottfried Leibniz's calculus, particle moving in a gravitational field, catenary equation, exponential calculus)
ref: www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk

1759
Died, Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, French astronomer, mathematician, made an expedition to Lapland to determine the shape of the Earth, first President of the Prussian Academy of Science
ref: en.wikipedia.org

1801
Born, George Biddle Airy, English astronomer and writer, seventh Astronomer Royal (1835 to 1881)
ref: en.wikipedia.org

1844
Died, John Dalton, British chemist, physicist (advocated atomic theory)
ref: en.wikipedia.org

1879
C. H. F. Peters discovered asteroid #200 Dynamene.

1882
Born, Geoffrey de Havilland, British aircraft designer
ref: en.wikipedia.org

1905
J. Palisa discovered asteroid #569 Misa.

1908
A. Kopff discovered asteroid #668 Dora.

1924
Born, Zhuang Yuzhi (at Chaoan, Guangdong, China), Chinese metallurgist, developed materials for China's first recoverable satellites
ref: www.astronautix.com

1933
G. van Biesbroeck discovered asteroid #1312 Vassar; K. Reinmuth discovered asteroid #1284 Latvia.

1949
The initial flight of the de Havilland Comet took place, the first jet powered commercial airliner.
ref: www.historytoday.com

1955
Goethe Link Observatory discovered asteroid #1751 Herget.

1961
Born, Daniel Christopher Burbank (at Manchester, Connecticut, USA), Captain USCG, NASA mission specialist astronaut (STS 106, STS 115, ISS 29/30; over 188d 21.75h total time in spaceflight)
Astronaut Daniel C. Burbank, NASA photo 9359923126_d2fe9d325c_o_0.jpg?itok=jYFOxUWS
Astronaut Daniel C. Burbank, NASA photo
ref: www.nasa.gov

1967 19:00:00 GMT
An Atlas rocket launched from Vandenburg carried the OV1-86 cosmic ray telescope, OV1-12, used for solar flare observations, and OV1-11 into orbit. OV1-11 did not reach its planned orbit.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1972
Born, Aydyn Akanovich Aimbetov (at Kolchos "Zarya Kommunisma," Kazakhstan), Kazakh cosmonaut (ISS 45/46; nearly 9d 20.25h in spaceflight)
Cosmonaut Aidyn Aimbetov, photo courtesy of the official website of Astana citySource: Wikipedia Aidyn_Aimbetov.jpg
Cosmonaut Aidyn Aimbetov, photo courtesy of the official website of Astana city
Source: Wikipedia
ref: www.spacefacts.de

1976 12:00:00 GMT
USSR launched Intercosmos 16 from Kapustin Yar, which studied solar X-rays, for investigation of the ultraviolet and X-ray radiation of the Sun, and the influence of such radiation on the structure of the Earth's upper atmosphere.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1979 07:30:00 GMT
USSR launched Cosmos 1118 from Plesetsk, a Zenit-2M area survey photo reconnaissance satellite used for Earth resource studies as part of 'Gektor-Priroda' project.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1991
During the 6h 49m Mir EO-9-6 EVA, Mir cosmonauts Anatoly Artsebarsky and Sergei Krikalev completed assembly of the Sofora girder.
ref: www.spacefacts.de

1992 06:08:48 GMT
Russia launched Soyuz TM-15 from Baikonur as Mir Expedition EO-12 with Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini aboard, which docked with Mir on 28 July in its 405 x 410 km orbit.
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1993 03:52:41 GMT
NASA's ill-fated Mars Observer spacecraft took its first photo of Mars, from a range of 5 billion km.
First image of Mars taken by MOC on 27 July 1993, NASA photo Mars_Observer_-_m1.gif
First image of Mars taken by MOC on 27 July 1993, NASA photo

NASA's Mars Observer (MGCO, Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter), launched 25 September 1992, was the first of the Observer series of planetary missions, and designed to study the geoscience and climate of Mars. The primary science objectives for the mission were to:
   1. determine the global elemental and mineralogical character of the surface material;
   2. define globally the topography and gravitational field;
   3. establish the nature of the Martian magnetic field;
   4. determine the temporal and spatial distribution, abundance, sources, and sinks of volatiles and dust over a seasonal cycle;
   5. explore the structure and circulation of the atmosphere.

Contact with Mars Observer was lost on 21 August 1993, three days before the scheduled orbit insertion, and was not re-established. It is unknown whether the spacecraft was able to follow its automatic programming and go into Mars orbit, or if it flew by Mars and is now in a heliocentric orbit. Subsequent analysis concluded the most probable cause of the mishap was a fuel line rupture during fuel tank pressurization, caused by fuel and oxidizer vapors leaking during the cruise phase through an improperly designed PTFE check valve to the common pressurization system. That leak resulted in an explosion that caused the rupture after the engine was restarted for a routine course correction. The rupture would have caused the spacecraft to spin uncontrollably, and would have made orbit insertion extremely unlikely. Although none of the primary objectives of the mission were achieved, cruise mode data were collected up to the time of the loss of contact.

See also NASA's Mars Observer Mission page
      and Wikipedia's Mars Observer page
ref: en.wikipedia.org
ref: nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov

1999 22:20:00 CDT (GMT -5:00:00)
NASA's STS 93 (Columbia 26) landed after deploying the Chandra X-ray telescope into orbit, and conducting scientific experiments.

STS 93 launched 22 July 1999. With the launch, Colonel Eileen Collins became the first woman to command a space shuttle mission.

When Columbia reached orbit, it was 11 kilometers (7 miles) short of its target, due to premature main engine cutoff. The problem was traced to a hydrogen leak in the No. 3 main engine nozzle, caused when a liquid oxygen post pin came out of the main injector during main engine ignition, striking the hotwall of the nozzle and rupturing three liquid hydrogen coolant tubes. Columbia eventually reached its proper altitude and continued its mission.

On Flight Day 1, the shuttle crew successfully deployed the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The observatory was propelled into its final orbit by a two-stage Inertial Upper Stage, or IUS. Following the second IUS burn, Chandra's solar arrays were deployed, and the IUS separated from the observatory as planned.

During the rest of the mission the crew activated secondary payloads and experiments, including the Southwest Ultraviolet Imaging System which was used to capture ultraviolet imagery of Earth, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Jupiter.

The astronauts monitored several plant growth experiments and collected data from a biological cell culture experiment. They used the exercise treadmill and the Treadmill Vibration Information System to measure vibrations and changes in microgravity levels caused by on-orbit workouts. High-Definition television equipment was tested for future use on both the shuttle and the International Space Station to conform to evolving broadcasting industry standards for television products.

STS 93 ended at 11:20:35 PM EDT on 27 July 1999 when Columbia landed on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida after a successful mission of nearly five days and 1.8 million miles.

The flight crew for STS 93 was: Eileen M. Collins, Commander; Jeffrey S. Ashby, Pilot; Cady G. Coleman, Mission Specialist 1; Steven A. Hawley, Mission Specialist 2; Michel Tognini, Mission Specialist 3.

This is one of the most poorly documented Shuttle flights we have encountered, with very few post-flight updates or mission reports available on the Web. As of 2015, the "STS-93 Press Kit" link on NASA's page pointed to an undeveloped (parked) domain name, and still does in 2018. The "Chandra X-Ray Observatory News" link lead to the Marshall Space Flight Center home page, rather than anything related to Chandra in 2015; in 2018 the "Latest News Releases" page it points to happens to have an article dated 18 July 2018 where Chandra may have observed a young star devouring a planet.
ref: www.spaceflight.nasa.gov

2002
A Russian Sukhoi Su-27 fighter crashed during an air show at Lviv, Ukraine, killing 77 and injuring 543, 100 of whom were hospitalized, the largest air show disaster in history to date. Both pilots ejected to safety and were found guilty at trial.
Ukrainian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 fighter crash during aerobatics at Sknyliv airfield near Lviv, UkraineSource: Tumblr tumblr_ojlftrtGF91r94kvzo1_r1_500.jpg
Ukrainian Air Force Sukhoi Su-27 fighter crash during aerobatics at Sknyliv airfield near Lviv, Ukraine
Source: Tumblr
ref: en.wikipedia.org


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